托福阅读Cause-effect 类型文章结构浅析

托福阅读Cause-effect 类型文章结构浅析穷人课文

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托福阅读Cause-effect类型文章结构浅析托福官方指南中对于托福阅读的文章结构类型,明确分为四种,classification,comparis...

托福阅读Cause-effect 类型文章结构浅析

  托福官方指南中对于托福阅读的文章结构类型,明确分为四种,classification, comparison/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution.在这四种类型中cause/effect即原因/结果类型的文章结构出现频率较高,对于这种文章结构的了解有助于解决summary即总结题以及文章的写作。故本文通过一些例子来分析如何识别和抓住此种结构类型的文章。


  Cau托福阅读Cause-effect 类型文章结构浅析se顾名思义就是问题出现的原因,而effect就是问题出现引发的结果或称之为效果。对于此种文章,大多数学生存在两个误区。其一,在常见的中文文章里似乎此种类型的文章对于原因的分析较弱,而对于结果的阐述较多。然而事实上托福阅读的文章则恰恰相反,主要是论述和阐释问题出现的原因,对于其最后的结果却往往一言或者数言以蔽之。其二,问题产生的原因往往写在前头,而对于问题导致的结果往往置于后头。事实上这种想法也只是中文惯有的,托福阅读的文章,大多先简明的陈述结果或现象,而后大量阐述和分析导致现象和结果的原因。对于这种重原因分析而轻结果影响的文章结构,我们常称之为现象解释型。


  既然是现象解释型,这样的文章,往往通过标题即可略知一二。例如:T-15中mass extinction一文,读标题即可知,文章主题关于大灭绝,这是已经出现过的现象,文章可能是现象解释性。阅读各段首,可知,一段首句Cases in which many species become extinct within a geologically short interval of time are called mass extinctions.阐释大灭绝的概念。二段首句The fossil record shows at least five mass extinctions in which many families of marine organisms died out.阐述大灭绝的现状。三段首句What could cause such high rates of extinction?开始分析大灭绝的原因,直至七段每段都在分析原因,所以很典型的现象解释型。对于总结题也必定是从现象本身以及原因来出题。


  再如:T-18中the mystery of yawning一文,读题即知文章主题是关于打哈欠的秘密。属于现象解释类型,同样通过阅读各段首句,可见,一段According to conventional theory, yawning takes place when people are bored or sleepy and serves the function of increasing alertness by reversing, through deeper breathing, the drop in blood oxygen levels that are caused by the shallow breathing that accompanies lack of sleep or boredom.提出对于打哈欠的传统理论。二段Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict.提出传统理论的缺点。三段A completely different theory holds that yawning assists in the physical development of the lungs early in life, but has no remaining biological function in adults.给出新的解释。四段The empirical evidence, such as it is, suggests an altogether different function for yawning-namely, that yawning prepares us for a change in activity level.给出另种解释。


  又如:T-21中the origin of agriculture一文以及autobiographical memory一文,阅读标题可知,一个说的是农业起源,那么起源一定会分析各种原因,属于现象解释型。另一个说的是自传式记忆,与T-6的婴儿健忘症一文颇为相似,讲述自传式记忆的概念以及其产生的原因。我们还是通过各段首来了解文章的结构。首先,农业起源一文,一段How did it come about that farming developed independently in a number of world centers (the Southeast Asian mainland, Southwest Asia, Central America, lowland and highland South America, and equatorial Africa) at more or less the same time?提出农业在各地出现的现象。二段开始提出Traditionally, it was believed that the transition to agriculture was the result of a worldwide population crisis传统观点分析农业出现的原因。三四段Climatic changes at the end of the glacial period 13,000 years ago have been proposed to account for the emergence of farming.提出气候的原因,五六段    It is archaeologist Steven Mithen's thesis, brilliantly developed in his book The Prehistory of the Mind (1996), that approximately 40,000 years ago the human mind developed cognitive fluidity, that is, the integration of the specializations of the mind: technical, natural history (geared to understanding the behavior and distribution of natural resources), social intelligence, and the linguistic capacity.提出思维流动性的原因。所以也是比较清楚的现象解释型文章。而在自传式记忆一文,同样开头提出现象Think back to your childhood and try to identify your earliest memory. How old were you? Most people are not able to recount memories for experiences prior to the age of three years, a phenomenon called infantile amnesia.二段开始分析原因Perhaps the explanation goes back to some ideas raised by influential Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget-namely, that children under age two years represent events in a qualitatively different form than older children do.三段提出新观点Another suggestion is that before children can talk about past events in their lives, they need to have a reasonable understanding of the self as a psychological entity.四段接着阐述原因A third possibility is that children will not be able to tell their own "life story" until they understand something about the general form stories take, that is, the structure of narratives.五段提出新观点A final suggestion is that children must begin to develop a "theory of mind"-an awareness of the concept of mental states (feelings, desires, beliefs, and thoughts), their own and those of others-before they can talk about their own past memories.六段总结上述观点。


  由此可见,对于常见的cause/effect文章结构类型,重在cause的分析,而且是先effect再论述cause,了解了文章的常见结构,在处理summary或者文章主旨脉络的题目时会更加清楚解题的方法和思路,仔细体会阅读的文章结构对于写作也大有裨益。




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托福阅读Cause-effect 类型文章结构浅析

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